Birth of Esclarmonde de Foix - daughter of Cecilia Trencavel and Roger Bernard I the lord of the mountainous Ariege.
An ecclesiastical council in the town of Albi condemns the aberrant beliefs of the southerners, giving rise to the name by whence the ’heresy’ is defined. On other occasions the ‘heretics’ are referred to as Cathars or Cathares or Cathari.
Birth of Esclarmonde de Foix’s younger brother, Raimond Drut, - son and successor to Roger Bernard I. Raimond will grow up to become the hero of the south, known to his people as ’Raimond the Beloved.’ ( ’Drut’ refers to the fourth stage of courtship or initiation according to the ancient laws of chivalry - ’beloved’or ’intended love’)
The Council of Saint Felix de Caraman, the first official gathering of the heads of the Cathar church, is presided over by the enigmatic figure of Papa Nicetas who travels ‘all the way from Lombardy’ for the occasion bringing with him the ‘Book of the Seven Seals’ (also referred to as the ‘lost Gospel of Saint John’ or simply the ‘Book of Nicetas’) a mythic Grande Grimoire some believe will not be opened until Judgement Day.
The first four Cathar bishoprics are set up in Toulouse, Carcassonne, Agen and Albi.
While a guest at her father’s castle, Nicetas meets the gaze of the young Esclarmonde de Foix exchanging a ’secret sign’ that marks her out for her future destiny as head of the emergent Cathar church. This ’sign’, is alleged to be a form of ’direct initiation’ whose origins are said to date back to the time of Christ and his disciples.
Esclarmonde de Foix marries Jourdain II of Isle Jourdain, Vicomte de Gimoez - ‘a brutal soldier who laughed at the new mysticism and took the innocent girl in order that she might be the obedient instrument of his pleasures after the hunt’. She bears him several children, among them Bernard, Guillamette, Olive, Othon de Terride, and Bertrand, Baron de Launac.
Birth of Raymond Trencavel, future viscount of Beziers, Carcassonne, Albi and Razes.
Raimond Drut woos the hand of the ’loveliest woman in the Languedoc’, Ettienette de Penautier, more commonly known as Loba, the she-wolf of Cabaret. Adhering to the custom of their time, however, they are destined to marry according to the dictates of their station. Loba marries Jourdain of Cabaret - the castle whose name ( literally, the ‘ram’s head ) is to become synonymous with the great gatherings of minstrels, mummers, and acrobats who flock to her court.
Death of Roger Bernard I - Raymond Drut succeeds his father as the Comte de Foix.
Raimond Drut marries the Countess Phillipa in order to secure a treaty with the Aragonese house of Montcade.
The election of Pope Innocent III who is later to launch the Albigensian crusade.
The death of Jourdain II. Now widowed Esclarmonde de Foix follows her calling. Taking the cloth and embarking on a thirty year apostolacy, she leagues the barons of the Pyrenees against the authority of the patriarchal Roman pontiff and the local tyranny of the abbeys.
Along with her sister-in-law, Philippa, she founds a spiritual retreat in the high mountains at Dun which functions as a home for aged Parfaits and a girls' school.
Raimond Drut makes a pact with Arnaud, viscount of Castelbon, to join
posessions. Raimond’s cousin, Count Ermengol VIII of Urgell and Bernard de Villemur, bishop of Urgell, see this as a potential threat and declare war. In the ensuing skirmish Raimond's loyal first lieutenant Roiax loses an eye and the young Count learns one or two hard lessons.
Overcome and captured, Raimond Drut and Arnaud de Castelbon are imprisoned.
King Pedro II of Aragon ( a Catholic monarch who had won considerable fame in fighting the Moors in Spain ) intervenes, wishing to spare Raimond Drut and Arnaud in order to aid the ambitious regent in his plans to conquer the Languedoc for Greater Catalonia.
Birth of Pierre Roger de Mirepoix, a cousin of Raymond de Pereille ( Seigneur of Montsegur and a vassal of Raimond Drut ), who claims direct descendency from Belisenna the moon goddess and will later become a key figure in the defense of the pog and the foundation of the ‘Sons and Daughters of Belisenna’ – the ‘most radical’of all Cathar sects.
Chastened by his recent confinement and humiliation at the hands of his cousin, Raimond Drut attends a ceremony in Fanjeaux in which his sister Esclarmonde de Foix is confirmed by the Cathar bishop Guilhabert de Castres as a high priestess of their faith. Along with three other women of high rank, Aude de Fanjeaux, Fays de Durfort and Raymonde de Saint-Germain, she receives the Cathar sacrament – the consolamentum.
While hunting a wolf in the high pastures of the Ariege, Raimond Drut spends the night at a remote convent and later the abbess Na Ermingarda perishes in the course of giving birth to illegitimate twins - Esclarmonde and Loup de Foix.
The news of the Count’s indiscretion places further strain on his relationship with the icy Countess Phillipa and the lovelorn Loba. While officiating at the Court of Love in Puivert, the she-wolf sets her sights on seducing another one of Raimond’s cousins, the dashing, young Roger de Trencavel, prince of Carcassonne, who already has a considerable reputation as both a knight and a troubadour. Unfortunately, the she-wolf is ever so slightly past her prime and when Trencavel too spurns her advances, Loba vows to take revenge on the golden-haired youth and the house that bore him. Ensconced at the family’s Pamiers estate, Esclarmonde de Foix experiences a presentiment of the coming apocalypse and advises Raymond de Pereille, the Seigneur of Montsegur, to refortify the old ruins on the summit of the pog and stock the cisterns and granaries for a coming siege. The work is supervised by Raymond de Mirepoix and Raymond Blasco. The walls of the keep rise a good 400 feet above the surrounding territory and a barbican is constructed on a lower plateau to the west.
Rumors begin to circulate that the AntiChrist is born and the End Times of prophecy are at hand
The Spaniard, Domingo de Guzman, sees a fireball fall from the sky and
proclaiming it to be a miracle founds a monastery at Prouille. The fig tree he plants there, of the same genus as Buddha’s sacred Bo tree, grows to this day.
Esclarmonde de Foix attends the ‘conference of Parmiers’ also known as the ‘conference of Montreal’- the last attempt at peaceful debate between the Cathars and the Holy Roman Church which is represented by Domingo de Guzman. When Esclarmonde attempts to address the assembly, she is ordered to ‘return to her spinning’ by the patriarchal Roman prelates. In an event that will come to be known as the ’miracle of Fanjeaux’, Domingo de Guzman places a page from the Bible and a Cathar parchment side by side on the hot coals in a public ’ordeal by fire’. The parchment burns to ashes while the page from the Bible flies up to the rafters and scorches the roof which de Guzman interprets as a dire portent.
Pope Innocent III dispatches several apostolic legates to Toulouse to set an example in the hope of scaring the people of the south back into the arms of the Mother Church. Their first victim is the venerable magistrate, Pierre Maurand, who had been the host of Nicetas during the Bulgarian cleric’s earlier visit to the south. The legates summon Maraund before the people, interrogate him, convict him of heresy and condemn him to death. The elderly Maurand recants and is forced to walk barefoot from the prison to the church of Saint Sernin between the Bishop of Toulouse and one of the legates who beats him unmercifully with rods. His property and possessions are confiscated and Maurand is forced to scourge himself and wander the streets naked for forty days before being exiled to the holy lands. The public are outraged by the Church’s high-handed actions and on the way back to Rome one of the legates, Pierre de Castelnau, is murdered while crossing the river near Fourques. This event provides a pretext for a military campaign against Occitania.
His Holiness, Pope Innocent III, issues a call to arms summoning all Christian nations to launch a Crusade against the south.
Simon de Montfort, a fortuneless soldier of noble birth, master tactician, and a ruthless administrator of conquered lands ( famous in British history as the founder of their bicameral parliamentary system ), is placed in overall military command of the Crusade.
The onset of the so-called ‘Albigensian’ Crusade - the military campaign that will wipe Occitania from the map. An army of crusaders gathers in Lyon ( the number was probably between 10,000 and 20,000 - some accounts estimate over 100,000 ). Besides Simon de Montfort, there are the Duc de Borgogne, the Counts of Nevers and St.-Pol, the seneschal of Anjou, and numerous other noblemen. The host marches south, along the River Rhone, towards Provence. They are joined by Arnaud-Amaury, a fanatical papal legate, who is granted titular leadership as ‘spiritual advisor’ in the ‘holy’ campaign. Meanwhile, Raymond of Toulouse recognizes the serious situation developing and seeks to reconcile with the Church. In June, he returns to St. Gilles, stands barefoot before Pierre de Castelnau’s sepulcher and pledges to expel the Cathar’s from Toulouse.
The Pope lifts his excommunication and Raymond the VI tentatively joins the crusade. The crusaders march to Montpellier ( which should be noted was a fief of King Pedro of Aragon ). Roger de Trencavel, the young prince of Carcassonne, realizes that the crusaders are heading for his lands. ( Although they were Catholics, the Trencavel family had long shown tolerance towards a particularly strong Cathar population in his viscounties of Carcassonne and Albi. ) The prince demands an audience with the religious leader of the crusade, Arnaud-Amaury, at Montpellier, in order to ‘surrender to the Church’, but Amaury refuses to receive him. Knowing that his lands are to be attacked, Trencavel quickly returns to Carcassone to organize his defenses, taking with him most of the Jewish population of Beziers to whom the young prince heroically grants safe passage.
Simon de Montfort captures the hilltop village of Servian, to the east of Beziers.
The crusaders reach Béziers and demand that the Cathars in the population be handed over. This is refused even by the Roman Catholics of the town. ( The tradition of Cathar strength in this town goes back to 1167, when they murdered their vicomte, Raymond-Roger I de Trencavel, in revenge for one of his knights having killed a Cathar. In return the vicomte's son, Raymond-Roger II, had the town ransacked in 1169. Domingo de Guzmán and Pierre de Castelnau had attempted to confront the population in 1206. )
The defenders launch a sortie which, when forced back through the gate, is closely pursued by a band of the crusaders. Once inside the walls of the town, the crusaders seize Béziers within an hour. Immediately, there begins a mass slaughter of Catholics and Cathars, alike. When asked by one of the crusader warriors about the possible killing of Catholics along with the heretic Cathars, Arnaud-Amaury delivers his notorious statement "Kill them all! God will recognize His own!" Accounts vary as to the number slaughtered (10,000 to 20,000, with just over 200 estimated to have been Cathars) in this, the bloodiest and first battle of the crusade. The massacre frightens many other towns into surrendering without resistance.
Present among the crusaders is a Cistercian monk, Pierre des Vaux-de-Cernay, who ten years later will write his chronicle Historia Albigensis of the campaign.
Guiraud de Pépieux, lord of a small estate between Carcassonne and Minerve, rallies to the crusaders' camp after the fall of Béziers. Later, he revolts, captures Puysserguier castle and takes two of the knights left to guard the fortress prisoner. By the time de Montfort arrives with aid, Guiraud has mutilated his prisoners (blinding them and cutting off their noses and upper lips) before abandoning them and departing for Minnerve.
The Crusader army arrives before the walls of Carcassonne. The town's population is bloated with Cathars and Jews alike, who have fled the northern French host. This perceptively impregnable fortified city of 26 [30?] towers sits above the Aude River. Its vulnerable point is that it relies on access to the river for its water supply.
As with Raimond Drut, the Trencavels are vassals to King Pedro II d'Aragón, who is also the brother-in-law of Raymond VI de Toulouse. Now King Pedro comes in person to Carcassonne in a vain attempt to mediate, but Arnaud-Amaury refuses to give any quarter in the crusade, and the Spanish regent departs in anger. A fierce siege ensues with both sides employing trebuchet and mangonel rotating-beam artillery.
The capture of two fauborgs outside the walls of Carcassonne effectively cuts off the defenders’ access to the river. Thirst and spreading disease force Roger de Trencavel to seek negotiations for surrender. Taking this opportunity to avenge the perceived sleight against her, Loba the she wolf of Cabaret, betrays the young prince to the Crusaders. While supposedly under her 'safe-conduct' Roger de Trencavel V is taken prisoner - an act pinpointed by some modern historians as the ‘death of the age of chivalry’
Carcassonne surrenders. De Montfort's crusaders do not conduct a massacre, but force the residents to depart the walled city, "taking nothing but their sins."
Roger de Trencavel's wife and young son ( Raymond-Roger IV ) take refuge with Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix, who prepares for the worst. Retreating into the relative safety of his ancestral fortress in Foix, Raimond sets about consolidating his holdings, gifting the Belpech estate with its ‘unique octagonal tower’ to his loyal retainer Roiax, whom he charges with raising the illegitimate twins and tutoring them in swordsmanship and the ways of their faith. Raimond knows it is only a matter of time before De Montfort pushes beyond the Trencavel vicomtes to make his first raids into de Foix territory.
The towns of Castelnaudary, Fanjeaux, Montréal, Limoux, Castres, Albi and Lombers surrender without any real fight leaving the way clear for the crusaders to attack Raimond’s holdings in Mirepoix, Foix and Saverdun. However, some towns including Castres, Lombers and Montréal revolt against the occupying army.
Cathari and 'faidits' (lords dispossessed of their lands) take refuge in Minerve, Termes and Cabaret, launching counter attacks against the crusaders.
Simon de Montfort seeks suzerain status over Carcassonne, Albi, Béziers, and the Razès area but the other senior French lords of the crusade are not so keen on possessing such contentious lands. Most, like the comtes de Nevers and Saint-Pol, decide to return to their northern domains after the fall of Carcassonne, although the duc de Bourgogne remains in the area with some 300 dogs of war at his disposal, looting at will.
Simon de Montfort and the duc de Bourgogne team up to attack Lastours, a city nine miles north of Carcassone, where Pierre-Roger de Cabaret ( Loba’s brother-in-law and a vassal of the Trencavel's) is harboring many of the fleeing Cathars. Lastours-Cabaret is a system of four 'castles' - Cabaret ( literally meaning the ’ram’s head’ ) being the residence of Loba and her husband, the long suffering lord of the castle, Jourdain II, Lastours the main citadel structure, the other two ( the ‘ram’s horns’ ) being simple towers close enough to provide cover for one another. The stronghold proves formidable enough to repulse the Crusader’s initial attack and during the raid Loba’s brother-in-law manages to take de Montfort's lieutenant (and cousin), Bouchard de Marly, lord of Saissac captive.
The duc de Bourgogne publicly burns two Cathars before throwing in the towel and heading for home rather than face the onset of a bleak winter in a troubled land.
The betrayed prince Roger de Trencavel conveniently perishes in the dungeons of occupied Carcassonne. He is 25 years old.
Simon de Montfort is recognized by Innocent III as a direct vassal of the Roman Church and presses his claim for suzerainship over all Occitania
Mindful of the coming storm, King Pedro II of Aragon places the fiefdoms of Querigut and Usson under Raimond Drut’s protection. The dead prince’s heir, Raymond Roger de Trencavel II, officially becomes a ward of Raimond Drut.
A mass uprising takes place against the Catholic clergy in Chartres. Several properties belonging to the church, including Dean Williams' house, come under siege and are plundered. Those responsible are excommunicated and a sentence of anathema pronounced against the city. A 'miraculous' fire deliberately started in a settlement on the banks of the Eure by an unnamed priest claiming to be acting under the influence of an 'angel of destruction' spreads to the city and destroys 'nearly all the houses of the blasphemers'. The devastation stretches up to the cloister of Notre Dame, yet the houses within the cloister are not touched, leading to even 'greater anger of disorder and envy' among the citizens.
During the winter the bloodthirsty zealot, Arnaud-Amaury, is installed as the archbishop of the strategically vital port of Narbonne. The costal town is to become a major entry for crusaders' supplies and additional men. Reinforcements come from Anjou, Frisia, Lorraine, Bavaris, Gascony, Champagne, Brittany, Flanders, Normandy, Aquitaine, and numerous parts of Europe.
De Montfort captures Bram after a 3-day siege and orders the blinding and mutilation of over 100 captives whom he sends to Pierre-Roger de Cabaret at Lastours to serve as a graphic illustration of his intentions towards all who dare to resist.
De Montfort’s army arrives before the impressively positioned fortress of Minerve. They bring four siege machines (trebuchets and/or mangonels), which, along with their sizable stone shot, have to be positioned in the mountains surrounding the town which is flanked by steep, heavily defended gorges. Though he is not a Cathar, the commander of the fortress town, Guilhelm de Minerve, feels compelled to support his deposed lord Roger de Trencavel. The intense bombardment manages to destroy the staircase to the otherwise secure water well.
Some of the besieged inhabitants of Minerve make a night sortie and set fire to the machine, which they have nicknamed 'Malvoisine', they believe has destroyed their well.
Thirst forces Minerve to surrender. Arnaud-Amaury refuses any negotiated terms.
Three women of the town agree to convert and are spared. Some 140 Cathars, who refuse to abjure their faith, die at the stake in the first mass burning of the crusade.
De Montfort begins his siege of Termes ( whose lord is a devout Cathar ) however, he is hampered by Pierre-Roger de Cabaret raiding his wagon rain. One attack seriously damages the wooden siege engines. In another attack, de Cabaret decimates De Montfort's rearguard and mutilates those he captures as a response to what De Montfort did to his captives at Bram.
Termes surrenders after the defenders run out of water. The lord of Termes is consigned to the dungeons of Carcassonne where he too eventually dies. By Christmas, the ’Court of Love’ has fallen and Puivert, Coustassa, Minerve and Termes have all come under Crusader occupation.
Arnaud-Amaury, relentless in his goal to eradicate the so-called ‘Cathars‘, accuses several prominent citizens of heresy and when Raymond VI, the lord of Toulouse, refuses to prosecute them, Amaury again excommunicates him. King Pedro II is present when Amaury presents his ultimatum to Raymond VI and expresses his resentment at the zealot’s outrageous demands. Raymond VI de Toulouse is encouraged by the Aragónese king's support and begins to organize a coalition of his neighboring lords including the comte de Comminges and Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix, whose fiefdoms are threatened by De Montfort‘s land grabbing.
With the arrival of a new host of crusaders from northern France de Montfort is able to significantly threaten Pierre-Roger de Cabarat's formidable Lastours-Cabaret defense complex. Loba is forced to flee and Pierre-Roger agrees to free Bouchard and surrender his fortresses in exchange for some land in Béziers.
De Montfort seizes Lavaur, the castle of Aimery de Montréal, a lord who had revolted against him. Aimery and his knights are hung and about 300 to 400 Cathars burned. Aimery's sister, Giralda de Laurac, is reportedly turned over to be abused by de Montfort's soldiers before being thrown into a well and stoned to death.
During De Montfort's attack on Lavaur, the comte de Foix Raimond Drut, and the comte de Comminges manage to engage and briefly hold off a massive host of Teutonic knights from Germany that arrive at the eleventh hour to reinforce the murderous crusaders.
The fortress of Montferrand is surrendered by Raymond VI de Toulouse's brother, Beaudouin, who soon after joins the ranks of the crusaders as he turns over his castle, Bruniquel, to de Montfort.
The fortress of Cassès is swiftly taken by the crusaders and about fifty Cathars are burned.
De Montfort, reinforced by a large Teutonic contingent, lays siege to Toulouse. The formidable walled city is reinforced by warriors under the command of the comte de Comminges and Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix.
After fending off repeated sorties from within the city, De Montfort is forced to lift the siege and pull back to replenish his ranks.
Raymond VI de Toulouse and Raimond Drut press home their advantage, leading a sizable force [possibly about 10,000] to besiege de Montfort at Castelnaudary. Montfort's forces have again begun to dwindle, however, he is still served by a hardcore of loyal warriors and Raymond VI de Toulouse is not the ablest of commanders.
Raimond Drut engages a relief force, led by Bouchard de Marly, on the road to Castelnaudary. The encounter is about three miles from the fortress and de Montfort abandons the defense of Castelnaudary to assist the relief party. His arrival manages to turn the tide of the battle and leads to the defeat of Raimond's army. However, de Montfort is not strong enough to prevent Raimond Drut’s escape and the subsequent seizure of Castelnaudary by Raymond VI de Toulouse who is able to recapture about sixty fortresses or towns held by de Montfort's crusaders.
In the autumn of 1211 Raymond VI de Toulouse and Raimond Drut the comte de Foix try unsuccessfully to retake Cabaret.
De Montfort is reinforced with another crusading host enabling him to conquer Quercy, Agenais and Comminges, in a series of lightning strikes throughout Occitania. Guy de Montfort, Simon's brother, unsuccessfully lays siege to Montsegur.
King Pedro II achieves an epic victory over the Almoravid, sultan at Las Navas de Tolsa, effectively driving the last of the Moors from the subcontinent.
Meanwhile Pierre Maurand, the first victim of the Crusade, returns from his exile in the holy lands. He is immediately re-elected magistrate in Toulouse and the town’s increasingly desperate citizens appeal to King Pedro II for aid.
Simon de Montfort lays siege to Montsegur, again unsuccessfully.
On the brink of realizing his dream of a greater Catalonia, King Pedro II leads an army to Toulouse. Having long resented De Montfort's incursion upon his fiefs, the Spanish monarch now feels compelled to act against the northern baron's aggression. He besieges Muret, one the castles held by De Montfort’s troops and Raimond Drut and the Comte de Comminges immediately join him.
The lord of Toulouse is on his way to Muret with a large siege train when De Montfort returns to reinforce the besieged garrison.
King Pedro II launches a dawn assault on the castle that is quickly repelled. His attack is followed by a daring sortie by de Montfort that forces the Spanish monarch's army to engage in a unexpected melée. Ignoring Raimond Drut’s advice not to face De Montfort on open ground, King Pedro II d'Aragón is killed in the action and his army panics. De Montfort wins a decisive victory. Occitania’s fate as an independent nation is sealed.
Pope Innocent III appoints a new legate to replace Arnaud-Amaury, who has become too openly psychotic to be allowed to remain in his post.
Raimond Drut and the Comte de Comminges take the opportunity to submit to the new legate. Raymond VI de Toulouse is helpless to put up any further resistance. He flees to England and the pope proclaims that Toulouse is to be ceded as a fief to the king of France, Philippe II, who until now, has remained disinterested in the campaign. Philippe II's fortunes have been recently bolstered, however, by his great victories over the English king John I's attempted invasion of southwest France, and then over the German Emperor, Otto IV, at the battle of Bouvines (27 July 1214) in northeastern France. These climatic events free the French monarch to consider acquiring the regions to the south of his principal domain.
Simon de Montfort advances to the northern borders of Languedoc and into Périgord, taking some castles along the Dordogne River. The region is the territory of Bernard de Casnac, a bold Cathar military leader. Domme castle, a former Cathar stronghold, is abandoned before de Montfort arrives. Next, he takes possession of the auspiciously named Montfort [no relation to Simon de Montfort] castle which has also been left deserted before the approach of the crusaders.
De Montfort continues along the Dordogne to the impressive fortified castles of Castlenaud and Beynac, each on opposite sides of the river, only a short distance apart. Finding Castlenaud empty, de Montfort places a garrison in it before proceeding to Beynac where he attempts to demolish the fortifications whilst taking care not to harm the locals who are under the protection of the king of France. The Dordogne operations will mark the northern limit of the Albigensian wars.
Early in the year, Bernard de Cazenac seizes back Castelnaudary and kills the garrison left behind by de Montfort who conducts a swift expedition back into Périgord, recapturing the castles and killing all the Cathar defenders. Bernard de Cazenac, however, manages to avoid capture and continues to engage the crusaders flanks. On his return de Montfort and his son Amaury cut a deal with Bernard d’Alion who will later become the lord of Usson.
King Philippe II sends his son, Prince Louis [future Louis VIII] to accompany de Montfort when the latter enters Toulouse.
Raymond VI de Toulouse and Raimond Drut the comte de Foix travel to Rome to appear before the Fourth Lateran Council. When accused of murdering priests, Raimond Drut does not deny the charges. Instead he tells Pope Innocent III that he regrets not having murdered more.
The Pope confirms de Montfort’s right to Toulouse although the rights of Raymond VI de Toulouse's eldest son, eighteen-year-old Raymond VII to Provence are not affected. However, Raimond’s ward , the ten-year-old Raymond Trencaval, son of the deceased Raymond-Roger de Trencaval, is disinherited. Canons four and five deal directly with the “procedures and penalties against heretics and their protectors.”
In Toulouse, the Order of the Black Friars is founded by Domingo de Guzman. The black robed Dominicans are to become the principal architects and administrators of the Inquisition, the system of terror that served as the prototype for the modern police state.
Death of the venerable Esclarmonde de Foix. She is 64 years old.
Death of Pierre Vidal, noted troubadour and one-time wooer of Loba, the she-wolf of Carcassonne. Amongst his notorious exploits was the dressing up in a wolf skin and parading amongst the countryside in hopes of gaining the fair Loba’s attentions. Instead, he was mauled by a pack of dogs.
Beginning of the war of liberation
De Montfort pays homage to Philippe at Paris for his lands, ceding his conquests to the French sovereign. However, resentment rises in the Languedoc region which welcomes the return of Raymond VI de Toulouse and his 19 year old son, Raymond VII, at the port of Marseilles. Many towns rally to their side. Particularly Avignon, which is within the domain of the comte de Provence and a dependent of the German Emperor. Avignon contributes troops for the capture of Beaucaire ( Raymond VII's birthplace in 1197 ) where de Montfort has installed some troops under Lambert de Thury regardless of the fact that the fortress is in Provence and thus, technically, outside his rightful lands.
Raymond VII besieges the French garrison at Beaucaire. His father, Raymond VI de Toulouse, seeks reinforcements from Aragon. Simon de Montfort rushes to relieve the town. The French crusader garrison survives for three months before they run out of food.
August - After failing in many costly attacks, de Montfort is forced to negotiate the surrender of Beaucaire. In the end, the defenders are lucky to be allowed to leave with their lives. It is de Montfort's first major defeat. Immediately after this reversal, de Montfort hastens to put down another revolt at his capital city of Toulouse. Following this, he goes to fight in Bigorre, and meets another defeat at Lourdes, at the end of 1216. Lourdes, in the Hautes-Pyrenees, marks the western limit of the Albigensian crusade.
Death of Pope Innocent III, election of Honorius III.
Order of Black Friars confirmed.
De Montfort leads a campaign against the county of Foix, laying siege to the lands of Raimond Drut, with renewed ferocity. He captures Montgrenier in Feb/March 1217 and his campaign reaches in to the Corbières area as far as the Drôme Valley. Meanwhile, Raymond VII takes advantage of de Montfort's absence and leads a large Aragonese host across the Pyrenees.
13 September 1217
Raymond VII‘s force liberates Toulouse. De Montfort returns and attempts a siege.
Despite De Montfort having ordered the town walls to be destroyed, his efforts have been thwarted by revolts within the city and the defenses remain strong, forcing him to build a siege train.
De Montfort brings in a cat, a mobile cover to protect his sappers as they approach the wall of the fortress. The defenders disable De Montfort’s cat with their mechanical artillery and then sortie out to burn it. De Montfort leads a counter attack against them. During this encounter, Simon de Montfort pauses to aid his brother, Guy, who is wounded by a crossbow bolt. At that moment, a stone from the defenders' artillery strikes Simon de Montfort's head and kills him. The shot is fired by a rotating-beam artillery machine reportedly crewed by women.
The death of de Montfort dramatically changes the nature of the 'crusade'. There is no high noble ready or available to take his place as leader. By default, it remains for the king of France to continue the struggle, which is now not so much to seek and destroy heretics, as to fight for possession of the county of Toulouse.
The new pope, Honorius III, asks the king of France to assist Simon's 26 year-old son and heir, Amaury de Montfort. Philippe II Auguste sends Prince Louis for a second time and the Cathar refuge of Belcaire comes under renewed siege. However, Louis' expedition is very circumspect. Deciding that discretion is the better part of valor, his father waits for the confusion in the Lauguedoc to settle down before making a decisive move.
Vowing to avenge his father, Amauray de Montfort lays siege to Marmande.
Taking advantage of the disarray among the crusaders, Raymond VII de Toulouse and Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix, succeed in defeating a huge army of northern French knights at Baziège, the largest conventional battle to be fought on open ground in the course of the Albigensian crusade.
Prince Louis reinforces Amaury de Montfort's men-at-arms, forcing the capitulation of Marmande and the entire population [ possibly 5,000 men, women and children ] are massacred.
Amaury and Prince Louis march on Toulouse, renewing the siege.
Tiring of war, and sensing the odds are increasingly stacked against them, Prince Louis abruptly withdraws and returns to northern France, leaving Amaury de Montfort to suffer a series of defeats as one crusader garrison after another surrenders to Raymond VII and Raimond Drut.
Raymond VII and Raimond Drut reliberate Castelnaudary. During the attack, Guy de Montfort (Simon's second son and Amaury's younger brother), is killed. This time, Amaury de Montfort is unable to recapture the town despite an eight-month siege (July 1220-March 1221).
Raymond IV and Raimond Drut the comte de Foix recapture Montréal. During the attack, the local lord, Alain de Rouey, who killed Pedro II of Aragón at the battle of Muret, is mortally wounded. The nearby village of Fanjeaux, where Esclarmonde de Foix once received the consolomentum, and Domingo de Guzman conceived the Dominican Order, has now become a crusader stronghold and it is attacked and burnt by Raimond Drut. As Raimond and his comrades recapture their lands, Catharism resurfaces and many Catholic priests, friars and prelates are forced to flee.When Raimond Drut sacks Saint Anthony’s monastery he is said to laugh like the devil before riding his horse into the burning church. Placing his own helmet on the head of the statue of Christ, and his spear beside its outstretched hand, Raimond utters the words “Save yourself !” before tilting at the blazing effigy with his lance.
Death of Domingo de Guzman
Amaury de Montfort and Raymond VII offer sovereignty of the county of Toulouse to Philippe II Auguste, who refuses it.
Raymond VI de Toulouse dies and is denied a Christian burial by the Church. His son, Raymond VII, who has been the real dynamic force in the recent campaigns, succeeds him as the comte de Provence and rightful lord of all Occitania.
The fiefdom of Alet is handed over to Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix, by Father Boston. While Raimond the ‘beloved’, is proclaimed as a hero and the saviour of the South, his reputation is blackened by the church and wild rumors are spread by the monks of Mercus abbey claiming that his bastard daughter, Esclarmonde, is a witch and has been seen dancing naked in the woods near Belpech, speaking to owls, and charming wolves and toads with her lyre.
Death of Phillippe August, the king of France. Philippe II's successor, his son, Louis VIII initially remains remote from any strong support of Amaury de Montfort.
Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix, dies of a stomach ulcer while passing through the town of Mirepoix. Some believe he is poisoned, although his death is most probably the result of natural causes exacerbated by the constant tension of the last many years. He is 63 years old and has outwitted, out fought, and outlived most, if not all, of his many enemies. He is succeeded by his son Roger Bernard. The castles of Montsegur and Usson are granted to his 17-year-old daughter Esclarmonde as part of her dowry.
Amaury de Montfort abandons Carcassonne and retreats to northern France with the remains of his father, Simon IV. He offers the 'conquered lands' to the new French monarch, Louis VIII.
Raimond Drut’s former ward 18-year-old son of the vicomte, Raymond-Roger III de Trencaval, (who perished in the dungeons of Carcassonne in 1209) returns from exile and enters his father's former capital city as Raymond-Roger IV de Trencaval. After fourteen years of massacres, and people being burnt at the stake, the situation is now almost back to where it was in 1209. At this point, the crusade seems to have failed and appropriately, Arnaud-Amaury, the crusade’s vindictive spiritual leader abruptly dies a bitter and disillusioned individual.
Unlike his father ( Philippe II ), King Louis VIII is ready to expand the Royal domain with the bounty from the Albigensian affair and accepts Amaury de Montfort‘s offer. However, pope Honorius III ( who is not eager to have a stronger French presence in the Languedoc ) has to be persuaded by the bishops in southern France to continue supporting the crusade.
In the meantime Domingo de Guzman is canonized as Saint Dominic and Raimond Drut’s orphaned daughter is proclaimed by some to be the saint of another ‘unknown religion’. The living avatar of ’certain dethroned pagan divinities’, incarnated into this world to stand in direct physical opposition to the forces of the Holy Roman Church. Her older sister Caecilie is forced to marry Bernard of Comminges to protect herself from the rising storm.
Esclarmonde however has other plans.
The resurgent Cathar church calls a general assembly at Pieusse.
A new Cathar bishopric is established in Razes.
Saurimonde, the ‘inspired prophetess’ of the Mazamet district, goes ‘naked as in the Days in which the world was born’ for her soul is said to have been as ’bright as the sun she invoked’ and rumors spread that Esclarmonde the bastard has called the Old Gods down from the mountains to do her bidding, even that she has conceived a child by a visitor from another world.
Raymond VII de Toulouse is excommunicated when he attends the Council of Bourges
( November-December of 1225 ).
Louis VIII personally leads a new crusade into the Languedoc. Raymond VII de Toulouse and a number of loyal 'faidits', stand alone in resisting the Royal campaign.
As a fief of the German Emperor, Avignon, refuses to open its gates to the king of France. A three month siege ensues.
Carcassonne surrenders to Louis VIII.
Avignon capitulates and Toulouse prepares to resist alone.
King Louis VIII becomes ill and dies in Auvergne as he is returning to northern France. He leaves his seneschal, Humbert de Beaujeu, to continue the crusade. Blanche de Castille, the regent for her son Louis IX, confirms Beaujeu's position.
The death of Pope Honorius III leads to the immediate election of Pope Gregory VIII
Labécède is besieged by Humbert de Beaujeu and the bishops of Narbonne and Toulouse. Pounded by siege machines and set afire, the entire town is reportedly massacred.
Guy de Montfort, brother of Simon de Montfort, and uncle to Amaury, returns to the Languedoc to defend what remains of de Montfort's claims and is killed besieging Vareilles in January 1228.
Toulouse is starved in the summer.
Bernard and Oliver de Termes are surrounded.
Blanche de Castile decides to negotiate. She agrees to recognize Raymond VII as the legitimate owner of the county of Toulouse (and vassel of France) if he marries his only daughter, Jeanne ( 9 years old ), to her son, Alphonse of Poitiers ( also 9 years old and brother to the young Louis ).
Raymond VII agrees to Blanche's terms at a meeting in Meaux. [ The treaty is sometimes given the name of this town. ] Raymond VII agrees to fight the Cathar 'heresy', to return all Church property, to demolish the defenses of Toulouse, and to turn over all his castles as well as pay damages. Raymond VII is flagellated and humiliated on a parvis in front of Notre-Dame and then imprisoned. His wife is expelled from Toulouse. This marks the end of independence in the Languedoc.
The Inquisition is established in Toulouse with a brief to root out and destroy the ‘heresy‘ by whatever means available.
Guilhabert De Castries requests that Montsegur become the centre of the Cathar church and the treasures of their faith are placed there for safekeeping, including the folkloric ’Book of the Seven Seals’ and allegedly, the Grail itself. He asks Raymond de Pereilha to allow the faithful to live at Montsegur ‘infra-castrum’- a term some historians have interpreted as literally meaning ‘beneath the castle’, giving rise to legends of subterranean galleries concealed within the mountain. In all likelihood, it refers instead to the small settlement sheltered by the castle walls on the eastern flank of the pog and hence protected from the prevailing wind. de Castries and the heretical bishop of Agen, Tento I, move their sees to the pog, which becomes the center of their faith, where the perfecti practice their ceremonies and grant the consolamentum to tested or dying believers.
Pope Gregory IX supports the Dominican-run Inquisition, allowing it limitless powers to torture and burn heretics at the stake.
The Inquisition is established in the Languedoc. Cathari are ruthlessly sought out. As expected, many resist or take refuge in the castles of Fenouillèdes and Montségur. Sick, eldery and even exhumed bodies are burned. The Inquisition's gruesome excesses incite revolts in Narbonne, Cordes, Carcassonne, Albi and Toulouse.
Pierre Roger de Mirepoix arrives at Montsegur having been dispossessed of his own lands by the Treaty of Mieux. He marries Raymond de Pereilla’s daughter, Phillipa, and is effectively placed in charge of the castle garrison.
Popular uprisings against the Inquisition occur in many areas of Languedoc.
The black Dominicans are expelled from Toulouse. An inquisitor is thrown into the river Tarn at Albi. At Cordes, the inquisitors are thrown down a 100 foot well to their deaths.
By autumn, the Inquisition had been run out of Toulouse, Albi and Narbonne.
The Holy Roman Church comes back strong. The Inquisitors return to Toulouse.
Esclarmonde the bastard is forced to marry Bernard d’Alion to secure a vital treaty and safeguard the supply lines to Montsegur
Raymond de Pereilla, the lord of Montsegur, is accused of heresy.
Meanwhile, the Dominican friars initiate their inquests in the viscounty of Castelbo, leading to the imprisonment of 45 heretics and the customary exhumation and burning of their dead co-sectarians. With the Inquisition operating in Catalonia and Aragon, many of the remaining Cathars are forced to flee to Lombardy.
Raymond-Roger IV de Trencaval seeks to avenge his father’s death and reclaim his rightful lands and titles. He leads a final revolt from the Corbieres region, raising an army, and liberating Limoux, Alet and Montreal.
Bailing on her loveless marriage to Bernard, Esclarmonde dons man’s armor to
fight alongside her twin brother Loup, who has become the head of the resistance in the mountains.
Raymond- Roger IV de Trencaval is defeated at Carcassonne and forced to begin negotiations in Montréal after 34 days of siege. He retires to Aragón with the remnant of his army. Meanwhile, the French army, under Jehan de Beaumont, enters the Fenouillèdes.
Peyrepertuse, the largest of the Cathar fortresses, surrenders to Beaumont after a three-day siege.
Louis IX orders Raymond VII to ‘destroy Montsegur’ A reluctant siege ensues. The defenders, dubbed the ‘children of Belisenna’ by the commander of the castle garrison, Pierre Roger de Mirepoix, prevail.
At Hautpoul, the parfait, Guilhelm d’Airons, miraculously heals the wounds of the
Catharists with his outstretched hands.
The unexpected death of Pope Gregory IX is followed by the election and equally sudden death of his successor Pope Celestin IV.
The Holy See falls Vacant.
Raymond VII de Toulouse tries to clear himself of the insult he had suffered in Meaux. He obtains support from the kings of Castile, Aragón, Navarre and England and leading an open insurrection, he revolts against Louis IX. Simultaneously, the English king, Henry III, invades southwestern France, initiating what will come to be known to historians as the Saintonge War
Meanwhile, a courier brings a letter to Montsegur from a clandestine Cathar, Raymond d'Alfaro, the bailiff at Avignonet, a town between Toulouse and Carcassone. Alfaro is very highly connected; being the son of a Navarrese mercenary captain and the illegitimate half-sister of Count Raymond VII. He is also a dedicated Cathar believer. The letter informs Pierre-Roger de Mirepoix that the chief Inquisitors of Toulouse, Etienne de Saint-Thibery ( Stephen of St. Thibery ) and Guillaume-Arnaud ( William Arnald ), along with their assistants and notaries will be arriving in Avignonet within the next few days.
Pierre-Roger de Mirepoix quickly descends from Montsegur with his knights, the so-called children of Belisenna,the moon goddess and at Gaja-la-Selve they recruit a small force of men armed with hatchets and cudgels.
On the eve of the Feast of Ascension, the raiding party from Montsegur position themselves in a copse of trees known as Antioch Wood on the outskirts of Avignonet where they are met by Guillaume-Raymond Golairan, one of Alfaro's men, who informs de Mirepoix that he has personally insured the black Dominicans are lodged in the central chamber of the castle keep. He rides back to the castle and visits the friars one more time to make sure they are bedded down and the castle guards are looking the other way.
The knights Guillaume de Lahille, Bernard de Saint-Martin and Guillaume de Balaguire, lead the force into Avignonet under the cover of darkness. De Mirepoix remains behind, requesting that they bring him back the head of the chief Inquisitor, Guillaume Arnald, which he wants to carry home to Montsegur to use as a ceremonial cup. The raiders are allowed to slip into the castle by local sympathizers and are guided to the quarters where the Inquisitors are sleeping. The knight Bernard de Saint-Martin, who has already been condemned to death in absentia by the Inquisitors a few years earlier, leads the assault wielding his huge battle axe. Some of the Inquisitors and their attendants, a total of approximately ten friars, attempt to take refuge in the chapel and fall to their knees in front of the altar, where they are duly cut down. After the massacre is complete, their clothes, funds and belongings are looted. More importantly, the Inquisition registers are carefully searched out and set on fire. When the knights return to Antioch Woods de Mirepoix asks "Where is my cup?"
"It is broken" replies Jean Acermat, one of the assassins.
"Why did you not bring it?” jokes de Mirepoix. “I would have bound it together with a circlet of gold and drunk from it all my days!"
Louis IX swiftly and decisively defeats the English king Henry III at Saints and at Taillebourg. Raymond VII de Toulouse's allies fall away as they see the French king preparing for a massive campaign into the Languedoc.
Raymond VII de Toulouse is compelled to submit to the French king. The ceremony takes place near Montargis. Though Louis IX pardons Raymond VII, the Roman Catholic Church does not. Remembering the killings at Avignonet, Raymond de Toulouse remains excommunicated. Montsegur is dubbed the ‘Synagogue of Satan’ by the Council of Beziers who elect to destroy the Cathar stronghold at all costs.
The siege of Montsegur begins in earnest. Raimond de Pereilha, Esclarmonde d’Alion and the castle’s five hundred inhabitants, including the garrison of 150 men at arms under de Mirepoix and some15 knights, stand alone against an army of 10 000 gathered from across Europe and placed under the command of Hugues des Arcis, Seneschal of Carcassonne, and Pierre Amiel, the archbishop of Narbonne. The siege continues throughout the winter and there are battles fought every day.
The son of the poet Pierre Vidal manages to penetrate the enemy lines and makes his way to Montsegur to bring the defenders good news. He claims to have met a phantom knight on the road at night wearing a purple cloak and sapphire gloves, a sign he takes as a certain presage of victory. Moments after this bizarre proclamation, Vidal is killed in an attack, a turn of events that only serves to cast a further shadow over the defenders’ spirits. On another occasion, it is Esclarmonde d’Alion who forces her way through the crusader ranks with a small body of men-at-arms, replenishing the castle’s dwindling supplies and undertaking to smuggle out ‘certain Catharist bishops‘.
Meanwhile, the election of Pope Innocent IV helps stabilize the Holy Roman Church’s hold over Europe and Bernard d’Alion transfers 150 ‘livres melgorien’ into the coffers of the Spanish mercenary, Corbario, whose crack Aragonese militia take up position in Usson. No one is sure if they are there to try and raise the siege or to take revenge on Bernard’s wayward spouse.
Brilliant young inventor, Bertrand de la Vacalarie, breaks through the Crusader lines and succeeds in building a siege engine within the castle walls, effectively prolonging the stand off for another two months.
Tuesday March 1
Basque mercenaries, lead by shepherds from the village of Camon, scale the sheer side of the pog under the cover of darkness and penetrate the Ers tower, forcing the posterns and bringing the keep within range of ballista fire. Only a promise to surrender on the following morning prevents a general massacre.
Wednesday March 2
Ceasefire negotiations begin with Pierre Roger de Mirepoix’s brother-in-law, Raimond d’Aniort, acting as an intermediary between the head of the castle garrison and the seneschal of Carcassonne, Hugues des Arcis.
The defenders are granted relatively lenient terms. They are given a fifteen day truce in which to prepare themselves, the men at arms are granted an amnesty and the convictions against the knights who took part in the Avignonet massacre, waived.
During the ceasefire, the castle’s treasures, including the ’Book of the Seven Seals’, are allegedly smuggled to safety.
Some sort of religious ceremony takes place within the castle walls marking the spring equinox and the Cathar feast day of Bema. Several of the men at arms, who fought alongside the heretics, convert to Catharism at the last moment and take the consolamentum, choosing to die on the fire rather than simply lay down their arms and walk away.
225 Perfecti are burned alive - among them are the priest Bertrand Marty and Raymond de Pereille’s wife and daughter.
The remains of Esclarmonde d’Alion ( also known as Esclarmonde the bastard or Esclarmonde de Montsegur ) are never found. Some say she lives still, even unto this very day. Others believe she turned into a dove that flew away into the east or passed alive into the solid rock of the mountain which closed around her.
Guy de Levis is placed in charge of Montsegur. He installs guards equipped with packs of hounds trained to hunt down those heretics who still feel compelled to return to the ruins of the castle when the moon is full. The job of clearing the thorn bushes from the side of the pog and hunting down the remaining fugitives is entrusted to a man named Bernard ‘Espinasser’- the ‘Thorn Cutter’.
The Cathar church is dismantled and its last leaders flee to Lombardy.
Raymond VII assists the Inquisition in a further effort to clear his name and cooperates in the burning of some people at the stake in Agen. He dies shortly afterwards as he is preparing to join Louis IX on the Seventh crusade. Jeanne, his daughter, becomes comtess de Toulouse.
According to the 'Summa' of the Inquisitor Rainerius Sacchoni, the number of surviving Cathar Perfecti in the old churches of Albi, Toulouse, Carcassonne and Agen stand at barely two hundred. In contrast, the Cathar Perfecti in Italy, including those of the exiled church of northern France, still number approximately 2,550.
Fall of Puilaurens.
The final military action in the epic 45-year crusade is the siege of the small Cathar fortress of Quéribus. No one has ever been crazy enough to attack this remote refuge before. Louis IX requests that the seneschal of Carcassonne, Pierre d'Auteuil, finish off this last bastion of resistance and take the castle from Chabert de Barberia.
August 1255 - Quéribus falls to the crusaders.
Bernard d’Alion is publicly burned in the town square in Perpignan.
Pierre Roger de Mirepoix dies in exile in northern Spain.
Death of Alphonse de Poitiers and Jeanne de Toulouse without issue.
The County of Toulouse passes to the French crown.
Occitania technically ceases to exist.
Peter Authier, the first Cathar Parfait to return to Montsegur in an attempt to revive the faith in the area after the fall of the castle, is condemned and publically burned.
Bishop-inquisitor, Jacques Fournier, conducts the first of his hearings at Montaillou. His inquisition register will serve as the primary source for many latterday historians such as Otto Rahn and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie.
The last known Languedoc Perfectus, Guillaume Belibaste, is burned alive at Villerouge- Termenes. The chain of so-called ‘direct initiation’ is broken. Before he dies, Belibaste predicts “people will rise against people and kingdom against kingdom; a descendant of Raimond Drut, the comte de Foix, will graze their horse upon the altar in Rome” to which his betrayer, Guillemette Maury replies politely: “ And when will that be, sir ?”
The last mass burning of Cathars takes place in Carcassonne.
Appendix B - The Faithful of Montsegur - those known to have fallen in the closing days of the siege
( I ) Sons of Belisenna
Knight Jourdain du Mas is given consolamentum under special circumstances in February 1244 --he is in a coma after being struck by a stone missile--and cannot consciously acknowledge the procedure before dying;
Knight Betrand de Bardenac, given consolamentum before dying "after Noel 1243";
Sergeant Bernard Rouain, given consolamentum at his death from wounds on February 21, 1244
Sergeant Bernard de Carcassonne, consolamentum at his death on February 26, 1244;
Pierre Ferrer, Catalan and bailiff of Pierre-Roger Mirepoix, consolamentum upon his death from wounds sustained, March 1, 1244
Sergeant Guillaume d'Aragon, participant in the Avignonet assassinations, killed at an undetermined date.
( ii ) The Faithful
Approximately 225 martyrs perished on the camp de cremat on March 16 1244.
Surviving inquisition documents record only 63 of them by their names and ranks
Raymond AGULHER. Perfect at Tarascon in 1204 and present at Montsegur from 1234.
Guilleme AICARD. Resident at Montsegur from 1234 with his wife and three sons. Received consolamentum on the night of March 13.
Pons AIS. Perfect present at Montsegur from the start of the siege where he was a miller.
Pierre ARAU. Perfect.
Bernard d'AUVEZINES. Perfect.
Raymonde BARBE from Mas Saintes-Puelles, sister of Perfect Raymond du Mas (Raymond de Na RIca).
Raymond de BELVIS. Crossbowman from Arnaud and seigneur of Usson. Arrived at Monsegur circa May-June 1243. Received consolamentum March 13.
Arnaud de BENSA. From Lavelanet, sergeant, wounded end of February 1244, received consolamentum March 4.
Etienee BOUTARRA. Perfect
BRESILHAC. Dispossesed knight from Caihavel. Present at Montsegur from 1236 and received consolamentum on March 13.
Pons CAPELLE, from Gaja. Perfect arrived at Montsegur circa 1242 with his son, a sergeant.
Guidraude de CARAMAN. Perfect.
Arnaud des CASSES. Knight and seigneur of Casses. A believer since 1220 and a perfect before 1243.
CLAMENS. Present at the seige. Around 13 March 1244 is named as having transfered Church treasury into the custody of Pierre-Roger de Mirepoix. Presumably a Cathar perfect.
Jean de COMBEL Knight from Laurac. Believed to have accepted consolamentum during the truce.
Saissa de CONGOST. From a seigniorial family at Puivert. Perfecta from 1240. Householder on Montsegur.
Raymonde de CUQ. Sister or cousin of Berenger, the seigneur of Lavelanet. Perfecta at Lauran in 1230. Lived with Corba de Pereille at Montsegur.
Guillaume DEJEAN, perfect from Tarabel, ordained deacon at Montsegur.
Guillaume DELPECH. Sergeant. Arrived to reinforce Montsegur May 21, 1243. Received consolamentum on March 13.
Arnaud DOMERGUE, of Laroque d'Olmes. Sergeant residing at Montsegur since since 1236 with his wife. Received consolamentum March 13, 1244.
Bruna DOMERGUE, wife of Sergeant Arnaud Domergue. Received consolamentum March 13.
Rixende DONAT of Toulouse. Perfecta.
India de FANJEAUX. A Lady from the Lahille branch of Fanjeaux. Perfecta in 1227 and householder on Montsegur.
Guillaume GARNIER. Cow herder from d'Odars near Lanta and a believer since 1230. Sergeant at Montsegur in 1243. Received consolamentum on March 13, 1244.
Arnajud-Raymond GAUTI, knight from Soreze and Durfort. Believer in 1237.
Bernard GUILHEM. Perfect.
Etienne ISARN of Casses. At Montsegur with his brother. Perfect.
Raymond ISARN, brother of Etienne. Perfect.
Guillaume d'ISSUS, knight and co-seigneur of Montgaillard in Lauragais. Believer in 1230. Present at Montsegur since 1243 and reported "burnt."
Jean de LAGARDE. Condemned by the Inquisition in Moisac in 1233 and escaped to Montsegur. Burnt.
Bruna de LAHILLE, sister of Guillaume. Believer in 1234. Perfecta at Montsegur in 1240
Guillaume de LAHILLE. Dispossesed knight from Laurac. Defender of Castelnaudary against Amaury de Montfort in 1219-1220. At Montsegur from 1240. One of the leaders of the massacre of the Inquisitors at Avignonet. Seriously wounded 26 February 1244, and received consolamentum on the night of March 13.
LIMOUX (Limos). Perfect at Montsegur.
Raymond de MARSEILLAN. Dispossessed knight from Laurac. Believer in 1232. Received consolamentum on March 13.
Bertrand MARTY. From Tarabel. Cathar bishop at Toulouse. Head of the Cathar Church at the time of the seige. Known to be at Montsegur in 1232 and reported "burnt with all the others."
Guillelme MARTY. From Montferrier. Baker at Montsegur and perfect.
Pierre du MAS. From Mas Saintes-Puelles, perfect in 1229 and reported present at Montsegur in March 1244. Probably executed.
MAURINA (MAURY) Perfecta.
Braida de MONTSERVER. Related to Arnaud-Roger de Mirepoix. Believer in 1227, and received consolamentum during a grave illness in 1229 at Limoux. Arrived as a perfecta at Montsegur in 1240.
Arsende NARBONA. Wife of sergeant Pons NARBONA, consolamentum on March 13.
Guillaume NARBONA, rider to knight Raymond de Marseillan, and brother of Pons Narbona, consolamentum on March 13.
Pons NARBONA, of Carol and Cerdagne. Sergeant, consolamentum with his wife on March 13, 1244.
Raymond de NIORT. Perfecta from Belesta. Arrived clandestinely at Montsegur in October 1243 with a letter from the Cathars of Cremona in Italy.
Arnauld d'ORLHAC, from Lavaur.
Corba de PEREILLE. Wife of Raymond de Pereille. A believer who received consolamentum with her daughter on March 13, 1244.
Esclarmonde de PEREILLE, daughter of Raymond and Corba de Pereille. Received consolamentum with her mother on March 13, and subsequently burnt on March 16, 1244.
PERONNE. Perfecta, arrived at Montsegur in 1237.
Guillaume PEYRE, sergeant, agent of Raymond de Pareille. Perfect. With CLAMENS, consigned the Cathar treasury at Montsegur to Pierre-Roger Mirepoix on March 13, 1244.
Guillaume RAOU. Perfect.
Alazais RASEIRE. From Bram or district. Captured at Montsegur and returned for execution by fire at Bram.
Jean REY. From Saint-Paul-Cap-de-Joux. Courier. Arrived at Montsegur on January 1, 1244, bearing a letters from the Cathars of Cremona. Received consolamentum March 13.
Pierre ROBERT. Merchant from Mirepoix. Believer since 1209 -- arrived at Montsegur 1236. Consolamentum March 13.
Pierre ROBERT. Perfect. Assisted in the consolamentum of Raymond de Ventenac, mortally wounded in 1243. Perhaps same individual as No. 52.
Martin ROLAND. Brother of sergeant Bernard de Joucou and uncle of the Narbona brothers. Believer in Lavelanet in 1232 and a perfect at Montsegur in 1240.
Bernard de SAINT-MARTIN. Dispossessed knight from Laurac. One of the leaders of the massacre of the Inquisitors at Avignonet. Believed to have received consolamentum with the mercenary knights Guillaume de Lahill and Brezihac de Cailhavel on March 13.. Burned on March 16.
Raymond de SAINT-MARTIN. Perfect and deacon.
Pierre SIRVEN. Perfect, assistant to Cathar Bishop Bertrand Marty.
Rixende de TELLE (or TEILH). Mother superior of the perfectae at Montsegur during the siege.
Arnaud TEULY, from Limoux. Arrived at Montsegur before Feberuary 14, 1244. Received consolamentum March 13.
Raymond de TOURNEBOUIX. Sergeant. Received consolamentum March 13, 1244 and subsequently burnt on March 16.
Marquesia UNAUD of Lanta. Seamstress to the Cathars at Montsegur. Believer since 1224 and ordained a perfecta at Montsegur at 1234.
Ermengarde d'USSAT. Believer at Montsegur from 1240. Received consolamentum on March 16